Saturday, February 25, 2012

The effects of the development on the ecosystem of terai region and its preventive measures

Specifically, the land of this region is plain and fertile. These factors and development works and modernization have affected the ecosystem of this region. Some major effects and measures to control them are described below:
  • Forests are destroyed to expand the agricultural lands and to collect the forest products. There is a high probability of loss of forest near cultivable land. We should stop the process of deforestation and make people aware about the conservation of forests.
  • While establishing infra-structures, the cultivable land, sources of water, forest area may be destroyed. So, the concept of integrated development should be launched.
  • The stones, soils, sand etc. transported from the hill region are deposited in the terai. These materials are covering fertile land. Due to this reason, fertility of land is declining. Landslide and soil erosion of the hill region should be checked for it.
  • The people use chemical fertilizers and insecticides to yield more agricultural production. Due to this activity, the fertility of soil will decrease and the useful insects may die along with harmful insects. Therefore, more use of chemical fertilizers and insecticides should be discouraged. Similarly, the awareness programmes should also be conducted to make local people conscious about the negative effect of degradation of ecosystem.

The Ecosystem of Terai Region

In the southern part of the country, there is a plain area of terai region. This is about 23 percent of total area of country. The terai region is situated between the altitudes of 60 meters to 610 meters from the sea level. Its breadth ranges from 25 to 30 kilometers. The climate of this region is hot and humid. It is composed of fertile alluvial soil. Following are the determining aspects of ecosystem of this region.

Physical Aspects:
The Terai region is extended from east-west. It has been formed by fine and fertile soil. This region becomes lower from the north to south. The climate of this region is hot and humid. There are several longitudinal valleys in chure and mahabharat ranges. This region can be divided into three sub regions: Inner terai, Bhawar terai and Main terai. There are 20 districts of Nepal in this region. The structure of their ecosystem is different.

Biological Aspects:
The vegetation, animals, birds and other living things differ with respect to the sub-region. The tropical and sub-tropical plants are found in this region. Sal, Sishau, Khayar, Pipal, Bamboo, Simal are the example of common plants of this region. The Bhawar sub-region has thick forests. Tiger, Bear, Rhinoceros, Elephants, Vulture, Cuckoo, Hawk, Dove, Kites, Crane, Giant horn-bill etc are found in this forests. There are fish and other aquatic animals in river, lake, streams, pond etc. These biological aspects contributed to the development of its own ecosystem in terai region.

Socio-economic Aspect:
The land of the terai region is fertile. Since enough agricultural production is made in the terai, it is known as the “Granary of Nepal.” So, the terai region is the main agricultural region of the country. Many cottages and other industries are established in this region. Along with agriculture, people are engaged in trade, industries, services, fishing and cattle rearing. There are dense populated residential areas in urban places. Biratnagar, Janakpur, Birgunj, Dhangadhi, Mahendranagar etc. are the major towns in this region.

The Rajbanshi, Tharu, Dhimal, Satar are main ethnic groups. There are more physical facilities in comparison to the hill and mountain region. Due to the high population density, the natural resources are being over-used there day by day. The houses are made of stone and mud with tiled roofs. Some of the large houses are made of cement and rods by using modern technology.

Sunday, February 19, 2012

Effects on the Ecosystem in Terai Region

Due to human activities, development construction and modernization, the ecosystem of terai region has adversely affected. Some of such effects and mitigating measures are given below:
  1. The people of terai region are also dependent on agriculture and forest products as in other ecological regions. The land in this region is fertile. Hence, in order to meet the demand for food for rapidly increasing population, the deforestation for the extension of agricultural land has increased day-by-day. There is high possibility of destruction of jungle near the fertile land. Various programmes are increasing awareness towards utilization of forest products without deteriorating the forests. It helps to protect environment and ecosystem.
  2. Transport in this region has been developed more than other regions. Special attention should be paid to conserve forest and wildlife while conducting developmental works like road construction and irrigation canal construction. Integrated programmes should be run for this purpose.
  3. Fertile and plain land is being submerged by the flood with stone, soil, sand. Fertile land and the fertility has decreased. For this, landslide in hilly region should be stopped.
  4. Small to large-scale industries have been established in the terai region due to convenience to produce raw materials, development of transport and communication. Raw materials like sugarcane, jute, cotton, oil-producing materials etc are produced in this region. Industrialization is increasing the discharge of wastage, chemicals, smoke and other pollutants. Various programmes should be conducted to reduce such pollutants. For example, wastage materials and chemicals can be discharged only after processing and treatment. Low-polluting machines and devices should be used. Green belt should be made on the surrounding of industries. It also can control dust, smoke and sound pollution.
  5. The feelings like, “It is difficult to survive due to deterioration of ecosystem of surrounding environment” should be developed by awareness rising programme at local level. Such feelings help to conserve the ecosystem of surrounding area very well.

Effects on the ecosystem in Mountain Region

Local mobility, opportunity of employment, source of income, etc. are rare in mountain region due to geographical remoteness. Because of these reasons, there is low effect of development construction and industrialization on the ecosystem of this region.
  1. There is low population pressure in this region; however, the dependency of people on the limited natural resources like land, forests etc. are increasing. Forest product is the main source of fuel. So, it is being declined. Due to pretty cold climate, it takes long time to regenerate the forest. Fertility of soil had been decreasing in the lack of fertilizer. In order to mitigate such environmental problems we should run forestation programme to increase forest area. Local people should be inspired to use appropriate technology like use of organic fertilizer, follow crop-cycle to maintain the fertility of soil. We must convince them that protection of ecosystem may support for them.
  2. The people in this region are engaged in agricultural occupation like farming and animal husbandry. Similarly, they collect and sell natural herbs from jungle. The awareness programme on protection of forests while collecting herbs should be conducted. Pasture lands are being desertified due to overgrazing. Encroachment of pasture land and random grazing to cattle in the forest also has adversely affected to natural environment. In order to control overgrazing, people should encourage to plant grass-trees and medicinal herbs in their own fields. It may protect the beauty and originality of this region and supports for tourism development.

Effects on the ecosystem in hilly region

Most of the people are engaged in agriculture, cattle rearing, farming and business activities. The facilities such as transport, communication, education and health are gradually expanding here. Following are the major effects of development works and modernization on the ecosystem of this region and their control measures: 
  1. The forests are being destroyed to increase agricultural land and people cultivate in the slope and marginal lands. This causes different types of natural disasters like floods and landslides. To minimize this effect cultivation by terrace method should be applied and cultivation in slope and marginal land should be stopped.
  2. People own cattle in this region. Natural environment is being deteriorated by collecting firewood, fodder, medicinal herbs from the forest. To minimize these effects, awareness in people to protect forests should be arisen.
  3. Due to development of infra-structure, forests, sources of water, habitat of wildlife etc are being destroyed. While conducting the development activities of development, integrated development should be followed. 
  4. Lands are been extensively used to farmland in this region. Cultivation on fragile, slope, banks of streams and rivulets is increasing to meet the demand of food grain. As a result, agricultural yielding has also decreased.

Hilly region is suitable for horticulture farming

In general, hilly region has temperate climate. However, the specific parts of this region have specific type of climate. For example, the basins are hot; valleys are moderately hot while gentle slopes are mild. Hence, a variety of flowers, fruits and vegetable can be grown here. For example, the flowers, fruits and vegetables that are grown in Terai can be grown in river basins the mild region flowers, fruits and vegetables valleys and tars and cold region’s items can be grown, the higher parts. Differences in slope of the land, soil, rainfall pattern etc. provide a suitable condition needed for different flowers, fruits and vegetables. So, hilly region is suitable for horticulture farming.

Socio-economic Aspect of Hilly Region

Some parts of the hilly region have fertile soil where as the others are not fertile. Maize, wheat, rice, millet, barley, potato, oil seeds etc are produced here. Rice is cultivated in the irrigated areas. They have to depend only on rain water. The people of this region keep the cattle such as buffaloes, cows, and goats. Most of the people on this region depend on agricultural occupations. This region is suitable for fruit farming. People live in plain area, hills and hillocks of the hilly region. Rural settlements are dominated here. Kathmandu, the capital city of our country is located in the hilly region. The Kathmandu valley has the highest density of population.

The people of various castes and ethnic groups such as Rai, Limbu, Magar, Gurung, Tamang, Brahman, Chhetri, Newar, Thakali, Kami, Damain, Sarki settle in this region. There is religious and cultural tolerance in this region. People follow different religions like Hindu, Buddhist, Christian, Muslim and others. Various festivals like Dashain, Tihar, Maghesankranti, Janaipurnima, Lhosar and other national as well as local festivals are celebrated well. This region is also very rich in famous cultural heritage. Some of them are Pashupatinath, Bouddhanath, Budhanilkantha, Dakshinkali, Palanchowk Bhagawati, Dolakha Bhimsen, Manakamana, Khaptad, Ruru Kshetra, Ridi, Halesi, Pathivara, Sworgadwari etc. The houses are made according to the suitability of this region. The houses are made up of mud stone, bricks, tiles, iron-zinc and cement. Some people of this region settle in terai region in winter and return in summer season. As reported by the national census, 2058 this region represent 46 percent of the total population.

The main occupation of the people in this region is agriculture. Some are engaged in trade while others in services. The environment of this region is attractive for travel by foot. Therefore, some of the people are engaged in tourism. Limited agricultural land is excessively used due to rapid population growth.

Biological Aspect of Hilly Region

The hilly region is made up of the Mahabharat range, Middle land and Chure or Siwalik range. There is some differences in the eco-system of each of the sub regions of the hill. Both the dense and thin forests are found in this region. This is the main area of deciduous forests. Sal, Rani Salla, Chilaune, Bamboo, Simal, Kharsu, Rhododendron, Devdar, Sisau and Khayare are the main vegetation of the forests. Maize, wheat, rice, potato, millet, buckwheat, oilseeds and soyabeans are the main crops of this region. Fish are available in the river, rivulets and lakes of this region. Various types of wildlife animals and birds appear here. This region is a proper place for animal husbandry and the cultivation of fruit. Different kinds of such biological aspects have helped in the ecosystem of this region.

Thursday, February 16, 2012

Physical Aspect of Hilly Region

The hilly region is situated between the mountain in the north and terai in the south and extends from east to west. The medium mountain ranges verying from 610 meters to 4788 meters above the sea level. Depending upon physiographic, climate and wildlife, the hilly region has its own ecosystem. The climate of hilly region is mild and warm. It is neither too hot nor too cold. There are hills of different heights, valleys, basins, and tars etc. Some areas with terraced slopes and various features are found here. Thirty nine out of seventy five districts are located in the hill region like Illam, Panchthar, Sindhuli, Gorkha, Pyuthan, Achham and many others. Kathmandu and Pokhara are famous city of this region and also for fertile land. This region occupies about 42% areas of total area of the country. This region can be divided into three sub-divisions as Mahabharat range, Middle land and Chure or Siwalik range. There is diversity in ecosystem due to difference in physical aspects of these different sub-regions.

Socio-economic Aspects of mountain Region

There is a lack of agricultural fertile land in the mountain region due to the cold and dry climate. Grasslands are enough for cattle. Occasional snowfall disturbs vegetation to grow and produce fruits. The yaks and mules are reared here. There are some small valleys and plains in the districts such as Humla, Jumla, Mugu, Manang etc. Settlements are found along the river side and some areas near steep slopes. The people of Sherpa, Thakalis, Mugal, Managis and Bhote communities are found here. Hindu and Buddhism are main religion of this region. People celebrate Pitripuja, Lhosar, Dashain, Tihar and other local as well as national festivals. Muktinath, Gosainkunda, Chandannath, Shey-Gumba are some examples of famous religious heritages.

Thakkhola, Namche, Chame and Olangchungola are important settlements of this region. Winter is very cold here. During this period, people migrate to the southern parts with their cattle and move to the north in the summer. The physical and ecological aspects have influenced the life of people here. Housing, food, dress, occupation and life style here are different from that of other regions. The houses are made with mud, stone and wood. The roofs are flat and thatched with mud: doors and windows are small. They keep their cattle downstairs. They wear thick woolen clothes called Bakkhu and Docha. Animal husbandry, wool industry and trade during winter season are the main occupation of this region. The chief source of income earnings are animal husbandry and small closed trade. The people find it difficult to pass their life due to limitation of physical facilities such as transport, communication, electricity etc. According to the census of 2058 B.S. 7.5 percent of the nation’s population is sparsely distributed due to the geographical difficulty. The overall economic development is very poor in this region due to cold climate, geographical structure and so on.

Saturday, February 11, 2012

Biological Aspect of Mountain Region

The mountain region  lies in the north part of the country and there is diversity in the topography and climate of this region. This is the mountainous area that extends from east to west. As a result, this region is the habitat of various types of vegetation, agricultural crops, animals, birds, and other many creatures. The animals and plants which have adapted in the cold and dry climate are found here. Barley, uwa, buckwheat, maize, potato, radish, cereals, beans etc. are vegetables and apple, lemon fruit are cultivated in this region. Alpine forests and pastureland are abundantly found here. The forest components comprises with oaks, maples, blue pines, gobre-salla, dhupi, deodar, rhododendron and bhojpatra. Similarly, bushes and shurbs are also found here up to the height of  4,000 meters but there is no trees above it. The wild animals from the mountain region are wild yak, snow-leopard, ghoral, black bear, black pheasant, sheep etc. are found in the forest. Somewhere, there are  pine forest and grasslands. The animals tolerating difficult situation of cold, less oxygen can live here. They can spend their lives with the adaptation to the natural environment of this region.

Physical aspect of mountain region

Mountain region of Nepal lies towards the northern part of Nepal. The mountain region of Nepal is extended from 4877 meter to 8848 meter from the sea level. The climate of mountainous region is cold and dry. Due to snowfall and very vegetation. Although, this region covered 35% of total land, there is only about 2% of cultivable land. This region is famous for the dozens of Himalayan ranges like Rolwaling, Gaurishanker, Mahalangur etc. and hundreds of Himalayan peaks like Sagarmatha, Api, Saipal, Machhapuchhre, Dhaulagiri etc. This region is further sub-divided into main Himalayan, inner Himalayan and outer Himalayan region. 16 districts are in mountainous region among 75 districts of Nepal like Taplejung, Dolakha, Mustang, Dolpa, Darchuala and so on. The snow line is found above 5,000 meter from the sea level in the eastern part and about 4,500 meter from this sea level in the western part of Nepal.

The ecosystem of mountainous regions

Mountain region lies in the north part of the country. This is the mountainous area that extends from east to west. It altitude ranges from 4877 to 8848 meters above the sea level. It consists of a number of snow covered hills. The snow line is at the altitude of 5,000 meters in the east and 4,000 meters in the west. It includes about 35% of land of the country. Its ecosystem differs with other regions due to its altitude, structure of land, temperature and climate. The land and climate of this region above 4,500 meters is not favorable to vegetation compared to other regions due to the snowfall, coldness and dryness. The environment is humid and cold so that the ecosystem of region is influenced land structure and climate. Because of hardship of life their growth is very slow. Thus the ecosystem of this region is valuable and that should be conserved for the protection of living beings.

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