Thursday, October 18, 2012

Interrelationship among Population, Environment and Development

The environment is the source for human beings to receive what they need. Population growth, poverty and economic means and resources are not equal everywhere. In some places, people make the excessive use of natural resources. While carrying on development works, they should not forget the concept of sustainable development. They have to make development model considering the existence of human beings, environment and developmental activities.

The chart given below indicates the interrelation among population, environment and development.  
Interrelationship Among Population, Environment and Development
How Population, Environment and Development are Inter-related?
  1. Use of Natural Resources: People must understand the importance of the interrelationship among various aspects of the environment. They use the natural resources in various ways. They make their house on land and obtain food by cultivating it. They bring wood, firewood, herbs, etc. from the forest. They get air and water from the environment. They can fulfill their needs if the interrelationship among the environmental aspects is well-retained. Population growth has caused the excessive exploitation of natural resources. They use land and water to increase production of food grains. Similarly, poverty, hunger, disease, illiteracy, etc. grow with the increase in population. The per capita use of natural resources also increases. If the expansion of population continues, natural resources cannot fulfill the demand of the people. 
  2. Development and Construction Activities: Human beings conduct various development works to meet their aspirations. Development activities should be regularly conducted to satisfy the desire of the growing population. The conservation of the environment must not be stopped while conducting development works.
  3. Economic Development: It is necessary to run various development activities like road construction, increase in agricultural production and industrial goods, exports of ready made goods and others for economic development. Such activities provide employment to the people and help to develop their working skills and performance. It leads the development of person, society and nation. Quality of life of people cannot be improved without development activities.
  4. Socio-cultural Activities: Development activities include physical construction as well as socio-cultural development. People preserve, renovate and innovate their traditions and customs, religious places, temples and monasteries. These development works are related to social and cultural aspects. The preservation, promotion and development of these aspects support the people's cultural progress. The interrelationship among the development works, population and different aspects of the environment should always be managed. Development works must satisfy the need of the present generation without harming the requirement of the future generation.

Friday, September 7, 2012

Development and Development Work

Introduction to Development
Population denotes the number of people in a certain place and in a certain time. People fulfill their needs by using means and resources from the environment. In fact, development is concentrated towards the fulfillment of human needs and necessities. It is necessary to run developmental activities for the development of a country. By development, we mean, positive and constructive improvement in existing physical human and cultural status.

Development programmes bring gradual change in existing situation. Development causes the progress in social, economic and cultural aspect. It helps not only to fulfill the various needs and necessities but also increases the capability of people to be self-dependent. Human being has vital role in developmental activities because man directs the development towards practical and specific direction. Planned and environment-friendly developments support the environmental conservation. Developmental activities provide security, education health, employment, food, healthy residence, etc. to human being. As a result, people can acquire and utilize rights, live and honorable life and develop their full potentiality with freedom.

Importance of Development Work
Development works are associated with environment. In order to conduct development works, environmental resources such as land, forest, water, minerals, etc. are used. They bestow upon people various types of advantages. Different countries conduct different kinds of development works according to the resources found there. The importance of development works can be described in the following way.
  1. Economic Progress: Development works bring about economic development. Agriculture, industry, electricity generation, road construction, tourism, etc. help to acquire income. Economic development provides job opportunities. Therefore, development works are essential to raise the economic status of the country. Sustainable development work contributes to economic prosperity. 
  2. Promotion of quality of life: Development works provide facilities. For example, road construction makes it easy for people and goods to go from one place to another. Building hospitals and health centers provides people health service. Agricultural development improves economic status of the people. It supplies industry with raw materials. Establishment of industries provides employment. In this way, development activities bring economic improvement which helps people to improve their quality of life.
  3. Availability of Essential Goods: Food, clothing, education, health service, drinking water, sanitation, energy, entertainment, security, etc. are people basic needs. The aims of various developmental works are to fulfill these needs.
  4. Environmental Balance: Each country has its own geographical features which influence development and construction works there. Development activities should be conducted in different parts of the country favorable to the place so that each part gets proper facility. Then adjustment of population is easy. Development works use resources like land, water, forest, mineral, etc. Their status should be not spoilt. So, attempts should be made to compensate the loss. New trees should be planted where the old ones are cut down and where the land is barren. Similarly, grass should be grown where landslides occur.
  5. Social Development: Development and construction works are indispensable for social welfare. They encourage people to utilize natural resources like land, water resources, herbs found there. People feel the need for conserving these resources. Development and construction works with the feeling of environmental conservation helps to fulfill social needs continuously. People get necessary things such as food, drinking water, health service, etc. They become self-dependent. There is improvement in their economic status. It makes difference in their life-style. When environment conservation feeling arises in men, they will be involved to conserve it.
  6. Development of Human Efficiency: If development and construction activities are launched in the country, people get opportunities to use their knowledge and skills. Their experience, work, efficiency and job-oriented skills are increased. The development of knowledge and skills of people produce the tendency of maintaining the resources. Other people also gain knowledge and dexterity from it. The development and expansion of human dexterity contribute to national development and environmental conservation.
  7. Development of Technology: Development and construction works are determined by the country's geographical condition, educational status, economic capacity, social condition, national development policy etc. Accordingly suitable machines, means, work style, etc. are developed in the country. Consequently, various kinds of technology and machinery are developed. Knowledge without technology is incomplete. Technological advancement accelerates national development.

Friday, July 27, 2012

Sources of Family Income and Expenditure

Family Income
Quality life in the family is the symbol of good civilization. All families do not have same type of life style. Some have very high standard of living whereas some have low. It is essential to make the size of family small and increase family income for attaining quality life.

Family income plays a significant role in making the family qualitative. The fact that the larger the sizes of the family, the greater are the needs of the family is an accepted one. That is why, the family income and expenditures are related with happiness and prosperity of the family. Income is the fundamental means for fulfilling the needs and wants of the family. Active labor forces of a family are regarded as sources of income for the family. If these members are efficient, active and productive, income of the family increases. Therefore, active labor forces or productive members of the family should be motivated toward the income generating activities. Moreover, level of education and mental as well as physical capacity of family members always determine their income.

Family Expenditure
The matter of expenditure for family welfare depends on income. Daily needs can be easily fulfilled and additional needs and wants can also be met with. The balance between the income and expenditure of the family can only be maintained when the expenditure does not exceed the income.

Each family makes and estimated budget consciously or unconsciously for expenditure. Estimated budget is prepared to keep balance between expenditure and income. The family usually spends the money that has been set aside for the expenditure. Generally, an estimated detail of expenditures to be incurred in the family is prepared due to the following reasons:
  • To calculate the actual amount of income and expenditure during a whole year.
  • To maintain balance between income and expenditure by determining priority of expenditures in accordance with the sources of income.
  • To save some amount of income for the providence, after fulfilling the needs that have been given priority.
In this way, to maintain the balance between income and expenditures, a family budget should be prepared. Expenditures should be in accordance with the income of the family. But, in many families, family income is not sufficient even to meet the everyday needs.

Tuesday, June 26, 2012

Cycle of Family Life

Completion of the family cycle and the growth of family are very sensitive matters of family life education. Family life begins when a person enters the conjugal life. Each couple has different responsibilities in their respective families. The structure, growth and development are the important issues related to family life education.
The family life cycle consists of the following stages:
  1. Founding Stage: The first stage of marital life is founding stage. The period from the day of marriage to the day of having first baby is called starting or primary stage. During this stage, there is love, affection, co-operation, understanding and mutual faith between the couple.
  2. Expanding Stage: Expanding stage begins after the birth of the first baby. This is the stage when couples give birth to the child, take care of it by breastfeeding, immunizing and providing extra food if required. This stage lasts until the child starts going to school.
  3. Schooling Stage: In this stage, the couple sends the child to school, providing it with different training and developing it psychologically. During this stage, parents teach their child how to read and write, encourage the child to assist them in their daily activities and help them to extend the hands of the relationship with their friends.
  4. Launching Stage: This stage begins when parents start to provide the skill oriented trainings, in order to get better job opportunities. This stage lasts until their children get married and start to spend their own conjugal life.
  5. Retirement Stage: This stage begins when children get married and reach the stage of maturation. Parents get rid of their responsibilities towards their children and start to lead such a life that is completely tension free. They get redemption from family burdens. Sometimes, there arises conflict and misunderstanding between the parents and young generation due to ageing.

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